The medical faculty of the Kiev University, reorganized in 1920 at the Kiev Medical Institute, was founded in April 1840. 22 medical students who entered the faculty listened to the first lecture on anatomy on September 9, 1841.
Due to the lack of proper premises for the placement of the medical faculty, its opening was scheduled for 1842, when it was supposed to complete the construction of the main university facility. However, the need for doctors, especially in connection with the widespread spread of epidemics in the country, was so great that in December 1840, Minister Uvarov, to change the previous decree, proposed the administration of the University of Kyiv from the beginning of 1841/42. To open the 1 st year of the medical faculty.
The term of study at the medical faculty was 5 years, and in all other faculties – 4 years.
According to the statute of 1842, intended exclusively for the University of Kiev, the medical faculty should consist of the following departments: 1) physiological anatomy with micrography; 2) physiology of a healthy person; 3) physiology of a sick person, or pathological physiology with pathological anatomy; 4) general therapy and “medical phrases” with the necessary indications on toxicology; 5) operative surgery with a surgical clinic; 6) theoretical surgery with ophthalmology; 7) private therapy in full; 8) therapeutic clinic with semiotics; 9) obstetrics theoretical and practical, obstetric clinic; 10) state medical science, which includes: a) judicial medicine; b) medical police with hygiene; c) medical law, that is, a summary of the case, the order of service, as well as information on civil service and jurisprudence in the amount required for the doctor; d) veterinary police with epizootic diseases. These departments were to be replaced gradually, with the organization at the medical faculty of senior courses.
The medical faculty was given a part of the laboratory property of the Vienna Medical-Surgical Academy, closed by the royal government shortly before the establishment of the faculty. Due to the fact that most of the professors and academics were Poles, few were able to work at the Medical Faculty of Kyiv University.
In May 1845, the first issue was held. Medical faculty of the Kiev university have finished, having received a doctor’s degree, 3 persons.
Already at the founding of the faculty, he was assigned an important role in the system of medical education in to become the leading center for other medical faculties of southern Russia.
The successes of the medical faculty of the Kyiv University are largely due to the fact that its development, like the origin of the faculty, is associated with the name of M.I. Pirogov. In the Diary of the Old Doctor Nikolai Ivanovich, speaking about his activities as a member and commission under the Ministry of Education, he said: “All the affairs and even the election of medical faculties of all Russian universities passed through our hands. Especially, the newly established medical department at the time, the Faculty of Kiev University was almost entirely established and elected in our Commission. ”
Students and successors of Nikolai Ivanovich were the first professors of the faculty – V.O. Karavaev, M.I.Kozlov, O.P. Walter.
The formation of V.O. Karavaev as a scientist and skilled surgeon was under direct influence of M.I. Pirogov, who wrote: “I can rightfully consider one of my scientific pets: I directed his steps in the field of surgery, told him the direction I had already chosen for me in the study of surgery. ”
Professor of anatomy, M.I. Kozlov, while in Dorpat, listened to remarkable lectures by M.I. Pirogov, under his influence, the scientific beliefs of M.I. were formed. Kozlov about anatomy. M.I. Kozlov’s enormous erudition gave him the opportunity to teach at the same time a course in the history of medicine, which was also to some extent the influence of his teacher, who paid a lot of attention to the history of the development of medical knowledge. The genius of M.I. Pirogov, which covered all the rich heritage of the past, sought the future, sought new scientific facts that could enrich the medicine and indicate the ways of its further development. This could not but affect the activities of his students.
The gradual development of the ideas of MI Pirogov’s medical faculty can also be traced to the work of successor M. I. Kozlov on the department of anatomy of Professor O. P. Walter.
While attending the lectures of M.I. Pirogov, as well as working in the clinic headed by him, the young O. P. Walter became a hotly supporter of his teacher, trying as much as possible to imitate him in the method of knowledge of scientific truths, built on a solid foundation of established facts, not assuming any unconfirmed experience of the findings. About that O.P. Walter followed the ideas of M.I. Pirogov, testifying to his words: “Probably no one will reprobate that I have always followed Pirogov, where only to do this …”
On the initiative of O. P. Walter, according to the project of the famous architect O. Beretti on Fundukleevskaya Street (now B. Khmelnitsky Street) an anatomical theater was built – one of the best at that time not only in Russia but also in the world. V.O. Beats called him “the palace of science”.
Together with V.O. Karavaev and M.I. Kozlov, O.P.Valter sowed seeds of those advanced ideas, which in the future gave a rich harvest at the medical faculty of the University of Kyiv.
Under the influence of M.I. Pirogov, scientists of the medical faculty of the Kiev University began to develop the actual problems of military field surgery.
In the years of the Crimean War, Kiev surgeon Kh. Ya worked in besieged Sevastopol along with M.I. Pirogov. Gubbenet with a group of students of the medical faculty of the University of Kiev. In the acting army during the Russian-Turkish War (1877-1878) the Kiev surgeons S. P. Kolomnin, O. S. Yatsenko and others worked.
In the early 60’s of the XIX century. the Kyiv University began the activities of a prominent Ukrainian Y. K. Shymanovsky, who came to Kyiv at the invitation of M.I. Pirogov. Pirogov significantly influenced the work of Shimanovsky in the field of surgery. His interest in osteoplasty, as well as the achievements in the development and improvement of various osteoplastic methods, are inextricably linked with the works of M.I. Pirogov in this field. On personal and Michael Ivanovich’s request Shimanovsky wrote an explanation to his classical work “Surgical anatomy of arterial trunks and fascias,” as well as worked out and supplemented illustrations to her.
For some time, the department of theoretical surgery with the hospital surgical clinic of the Kiev University was headed by a prominent Russian surgeon M.V. Sklyfosovsky, who also recommended for this post M.I. Pirogov.
Pirogov’s recommendation regarding the candidates for the replacement of department heads at the University of Kyiv for many years was a peculiar tradition, one of the manifestations of M.I. Pirogov’s long-term influence on the development of the medical faculty of the University of Kyiv. The hot followers of M.I. Pirogov were outstanding Kiev surgeons M. Volkovich and A. P. Krymov.
About recognition of the enormous merits of M.I. Pirogov in the formation and development of Kyiv University and, first of all, his medical faculty, testifies to his election as an honorary member of the University (April 20, 1855).
M.I. Pirogov had a direct influence on the development of the medical faculty while he was a curator of the Kiev educational district (1858-1861 gg.).
While paying considerable attention to the education of student youth, M.I. Pirogov simultaneously worried about her daily needs. With his active participation in the Kiev University, the first student classes were organized to provide material assistance to students. M.I. Pirogov also contributed to the creation of a student library and a lecture. At the request of the students, M.I. Pirogov, before leaving Kyiv, presented his photo portrait to the lecture, on which he wrote the inscription: “I love and respect youth. Because I remember my. N. I. Pirogov, 1861, April 13, Kyiv. ”
In 1875, the city’s Oleksandrivka hospital was opened in Kyiv, which became the basis for a number of clinics of the medical faculty.
In the same year, the building for the Department of General Pathology and Histology (now Bohdan Khmelnytskyi Street) was built, and 10 years later, the building of the faculty therapeutic and surgical clinics (now T. Shevchenko Boulevard, 17).
During this period a number of new departments were established at the Faculty of Medicine: operative surgery, nerve diseases, physiological chemistry, pediatrics, surgical pathology, and others. The Faculty of Medicine is becoming the largest faculty at Kyiv University. In 1885, 986 students studied there.
In the 60’s – 80’s of the XIX century. the faculty’s faculty members were supplemented by a number of prominent scholars, including V.O. Bets, V.T. Pokrovsky, P.I. Peredeshko, V. B. Toms, M. V. Sklyfosovsky, V. A. Subbotin, M. A. Khrzhonchevsky, G. M. Minh, A. V. Ivanov and others.
At the end of the XIX – early XX century. a number of chairs were headed by great scholars – M.I.Stukovenkov, V.V. Podvysotsky, V.Ye. Chernov, O.D.Pavlovsky, S. M. Reformatsky, M. M. Volkovich, V.P. Obraztsov, F. G. Yanovsky, V. K. Visokovich, M. M. Dieterhs, K. E. Dobrovolsky, A. P. Krymov, A. V. Korchak-Chepurkivskyi, V. Yu. Chagovets.
A significant contribution to the study of microscopic anatomy and physiology of the central nervous system was made by the Ukrainian anatomist and the histologist V.O. Betz. His classical work, “Anatomy of the Surface of the Brain”, was the beginning of a modern doctrine of the cellular structure of the cerebral cortex. Of great importance were the research by V.O. Bezov of the structure of the adrenal glands, the development and growth of bones, and clinical diagnosis.
An outstanding pathologist and epidemiologist G. M. Minh, with his research, sometimes at risk for life, made a lot of new in the issue of the etiology and pathogenesis of a number of infectious diseases.
Widely known works of the founder of the Kiev school of pathologists V.V. Podvysotsky devoted to the microscopic structure of the pancreas, the regeneration process, problems of general pathology, infection and immunity, the etiology of malignant tumors, endocrinology, etc. The textbook “Fundamentals of General Pathology” written by him in Kyiv withstood 20 editions and was translated into 17 languages.
Student V. Podvysotsky, eminent epidemiologist D. K. Zabolotnyi stressed that the Kiev period was the most fruitful period of his life from a scientific point of view.
One of the founders of the national histophysiology and sanitary education of the population was Professor M.A. Khrzhnchevsky. He proposed a method of physiological injection, which has not lost its value and now, has created valuable works on the structure and functions of the blood and lymphatic vessels, kidneys, liver, etc.
Successfully developed the ideas of S.P. Botkin in Kyiv, one of his first students, professor V.T. Pokrovsky. A significant contribution to the development of hygiene was made by the founder of this department, Professor V.A. Subbotin, and in the field of pediatrics – Professor V. Ye. Chernov.
The classical work of Professor P. I. Interlude “On the division of animal cells” has gained the author’s general recognition and respect in the scientific world.
Professor V.K. Visokovich was one of the most prominent pathologists and bacteriologists of his time.
Talented innovators were the famous surgeon M. M. Volkovich, one of the founders of electrophysiology V. Yu. Chagovets, founders of the Kiev Therapeutic School V.P. Obraztsov, F. G. Yanovsky and others.
Currently, more than 10 thousand students study at the National Medical University of Ukraine, including about 1.3 thousand foreigners from 56 countries. It employs about 1.2 thousand teachers, including 29 academicians, 163 professors, 228 doctors of science. The structure of the university includes 10 faculties, 87 departments, 2 research institutes.